As ofChina leads the world in the production and use of wind power, solar photovoltaic power and smart grid technologies, generating almost as much water, wind and solar energy as all of France and Germany's power plants combined. China's renewable energy sector is growing faster than its fossil fuels and nuclear power capacity. Sinceproduction of solar cells in China has expanded fold. As Chinese renewable manufacturing has grown, the costs of renewable energy technologies have dropped.
When we think of green building, we generally think about energy efficiency and the U.
However, sustainable, green, and high-performance buildings are much more complicated than this. They involve an integrated approach to energy conservation and efficiency; indoor environmental and air quality; and the efficient, effective use of site, water, and material resources.
Genuine long-term environmental sustainability means more than the mainstream construction of buildings according to outdated conventions. Health in Buildings Because we breathe without conscious effort, we spend little time thinking about what enters our systems with those breaths.
We do not see, and only sometimes smell, the chemicals and particulates that endanger our health. Yet indoor air quality is not a primary focus of contemporary building design.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA estimates that Americans spend almost 89 percent of their time indoors at home and at work6 percent in vehicles, and only about 5 percent outdoors.
They further tell us that the air indoors is about 2 to 5 times more concentrated with chemical pollutants than the air outdoors, with the result that we are being exposed to high levels of chemical concentrations for the vast majority of our lives. Our bodies, not designed for this, are responding with health afflictions such as Page 67 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Health, Environment, and Economics: The National Academies Press.
Indoor air quality is dependent on a number of factors, including the quality of the outside air that we bring into the building; the chemical emissions from the materials, furnishing, and equipment that we place in our buildings; the efficacy of the ventilation systems that we use to purge the indoor air; the activities of the building occupants; and the long-term maintenance of the buildings and their contents.
These factors contribute volatile organic compounds; microbial organisms and microbial volatile organic compounds from mold; semivolatile organic compounds from fire retardants, pesticides and plasticizers; inorganic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone; and particulate matter generated outdoors by fuel combustions and indoors by occupant activities and equipment.
Four Principles of Good Indoor Air Quality Design In the early s, my firm began an earnest exploration of the role of design in improving indoor air quality.
Our work was influenced by and tested during a major civic project, the San Francisco Main Library. Our experiences with that project and numerous others since then have confirmed that healthier buildings result from the adherence to four basic principles: Source control reducing the indoor chemical concentrations by reducing or eliminating the pollutant source Ventilation control providing adequate ventilation to dissipate and purge the indoor air pollutants Building and IAQ commissioning a process used to check and verify that the building is constructed as designed and operates as intended Building maintenance regular inspection, maintenance, and cleaning of the building and its contents Page 68 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Source Control There have been many developments in the science and practical applications leading to improved indoor air quality.
Most recently, those developments have been in the area of source control, the principle on which I will focus in this article. Significant scientific research has been published in the area of source control and the reduction of potentially harmful substances in indoor air. Although more research is needed to build on the current body of IAQ knowledge, the collective data has provided some guidance to building designers that, combined with practical building experience over the last 20 years, has led to the current state of IAQ knowledge.
Little was known at the time about the effectiveness of this guideline, and concerns were raised regarding the factor of safety of the indoor air chemical concentrations.
Concerns were still raised, however, about the health impacts of individual chemicals and the synergistic effects of a combination of chemicals in the air. In my firm was selected as part of a large team to design the new ,sq. San Francisco Main Library.
Although the library staff was originally skeptical that we could design for good indoor air quality, the building opened in April with very positive response from the staff about the IAQ. The unfortunate lesson that we learned on this project was that, although we were able to have material manufacturers eliminate some odorous and potentially harmful chemical emissions from their products, they replaced them with others about which the health effects were less well established.
Bywork had begun on the design of a ,sq. My firm was selected to join the team that would design and build the project. We were requested by the state to give particular attention to delivering a building through the design-build process with good IAQ.
We built on the previously prepared furniture procurement specifications and subsequently adapted their methodology for the building materials Bernheim et al.
The goal was to reduce indoor chemical concentrations by reducing or eliminating chemicals of concern that are carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, and chemicals with long-term or chronic health effects. To do this, we needed to better understand the contribution of these materials to overall indoor chemical concentration and the potential health impacts of these concentrations.
The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment OEHHA has developed a list of about 80 chemical compounds and has, through evaluation of the available science, determined the impact on the human body of long-term exposure to these chemicals.
Our team developed a special environmental requirements construction specification, now known as sectionfor this project.
Section also establishes an airing out period prior to substantial completion. Postoccupancy air testing in the Capitol Area East End Complex was performed, and the results indicated that the section material testing was effective in limiting the chemical concentrations in the completed building, which achieved a USGBC LEED gold rating.
Market Transformation As design for healthy indoor air quality gains a foothold, these early projects are becoming a baseline for standards that are being followed in many industries. State office building, the West End Office Complex. Numerous building products, including ceiling tiles and floor materials, have been reformulated by their manufacturers to reduce chemical emissions based on these specifications, and more recently, many industry trade groups have developed or are in the process of developing certifications to indicate some level of compliance.More than 40% of dementia diagnoses have been shown to be wrong.
Here's what may really be going on. Imagine this nightmare. For the last few years your mother has had serious memory problems. Overview The four Logan brothers were early settlers of an area along the North and South Carolina border that was originally part of Tryon County, North Carolina, and later became part of Rutherford County, North Carolina and York County, South Carolina.
This article is a reply by the author to a response to his article about "The Quality Time Program". Many of the responses saw the program, which involved teachers 'buddying' with students experiencing behavioural problems, as yet another imposition on teachers' time.
Physiology and Pharmacology Discipline Video. The Physiology and Pharmacology discipline of the Integrated Biomedical Sciences program integrates the study of fundamental mechanisms of normal and disease function at the molecular, cellular and organ/system levels to spur discoveries; leading to new and improved treatments for human disease.
Going green generally includes recycling, buying environmentally-friendly products, energy efficient electronics, and living off the land. However, the reality is there are many obstacles to going green ; the primary of which is cost effectiveness (Outka, ).
Melissa Kaplan's Herp Care Collection Last updated January 1, Anoles. Anolis spp. ©, Melissa Kaplan. Species Information.