Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. Self-Portrait, - Detail Museo del Prado, Madrid His contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable. He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the German artistic life.
Names can hurt, especially names that are racial slurs, which African Americans growing up before the era of the civil rights movement routinely heard. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, the use of these words would have affected how whites perceived African Americans.
More generally, the use of racist terms may reinforce racial prejudice and racial stereotypes. Sociology Making a Difference Overcoming Cultural and Ethnic Differences People from many different racial and ethnic backgrounds live in large countries such as the United States.
Because of cultural differences and various prejudices, it can be difficult for individuals from one background to interact with individuals from another background. Fortunately, a line of research, grounded in contact theory and conducted by sociologists and social psychologists, suggests that interaction among individuals from different backgrounds can indeed help overcome tensions arising from their different cultures and any prejudices they may hold.
Recent studies of college students provide additional evidence that social contact can help overcome cultural differences and prejudices. Yet the body of work supporting contact theory suggests that efforts that increase social interaction among people from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds in the long run will reduce racial and ethnic tensions.
Norms Cultures differ widely in their normsor standards and expectations for behaving. Norms of drunken behavior influence how we behave when we drink too much. Norms are often divided into two types, formal norms and informal norms.
Formal norms, also called mores MOOR-ayz and laws, refer to the standards of behavior considered the most important in any society.
Examples in the United States include traffic laws, criminal codes, and, in a college context, student behavior codes addressing such things as cheating and hate speech.
Informal norms, also called folkways and customs, refer to standards of behavior that are considered less important but still influence how we behave.
Table manners are a common example of informal norms, as are such everyday behaviors as how we interact with a cashier and how we ride in an elevator.
Many norms differ dramatically from one culture to the next. Some of the best evidence for cultural variation in norms comes from the study of sexual behavior Edgerton, Among the Pokot of East Africa, for example, women are expected to enjoy sex, while among the Gusii a few hundred miles away, women who enjoy sex are considered deviant.
In Inis Beag, a small island off the coast of Ireland, sex is considered embarrassing and even disgusting; men feel that intercourse drains their strength, while women consider it a burden. Even nudity is considered terrible, and people on Inis Beag keep their clothes on while they bathe.
The situation is quite different in Mangaia, a small island in the South Pacific.
Here sex is considered very enjoyable, and it is the major subject of songs and stories. While many societies frown on homosexuality, others accept it. Among the Azande of East Africa, for example, young warriors live with each other and are not allowed to marry.
During this time, they often have sex with younger boys, and this homosexuality is approved by their culture. Among the Sambia of New Guinea, young males live separately from females and engage in homosexual behavior for at least a decade.
It is felt that the boys would be less masculine if they continued to live with their mothers and that the semen of older males helps young boys become strong and fierce Edgerton, Although many societies disapprove of homosexuality, other societies accept it.
Other evidence for cultural variation in norms comes from the study of how men and women are expected to behave in various societies.
For example, many traditional societies are simple hunting-and-gathering societies. In most of these, men tend to hunt and women tend to gather. Many observers attribute this gender difference to at least two biological differences between the sexes.
First, men tend to be bigger and stronger than women and are thus better suited for hunting.
Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character. Hello Liz, I am really confused, some web sources tell that in discussion essay, the opinion of the candidate should be given in INTRODUCTION, whereas, others suggest to not include your view in introduction paragraph, just discuss both sides in two body . Acting, the performing art in which movement, gesture, and intonation are used to realize a fictional character for the stage, for motion pictures, or for television.. Acting is generally agreed to be a matter less of mimicry, exhibitionism, or imitation than of the ability to react to imaginary stimuli.
Second, women become pregnant and bear children and are less able to hunt. Yet a different pattern emerges in some hunting-and-gathering societies. Among a group of Australian aborigines called the Tiwi and a tribal society in the Philippines called the Agta, both sexes hunt.
In the United States, people who are not intimates usually stand about three to four feet apart when they talk.
If someone stands more closely to us, especially if we are of northern European heritage, we feel uncomfortable.
Yet people in other countries—especially Italy, France, Spain, and many of the nations of Latin America and the Middle East—would feel uncomfortable if they were standing three to four feet apart. To them, this distance is too great and indicates that the people talking dislike each other.
Rituals Different cultures also have different ritualsor established procedures and ceremonies that often mark transitions in the life course.THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups.
Another Look at the Cultural Cringe. L. J. Hume.
Foreward. The publication of this occasional paper signals an ambition on the part of the Centre for Independent Studies to pay more attention to broad cultural . ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORIES Perhaps his greatest contribution to the functionalist paradigm is his distinction between social structure and social organization (see Principal Concepts for a definition of the distinction between the two) (Silverman , Watson-Gegeo ).
Comparative Functionalism, An Essay in Anthropological Theory.
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