It is not the case that all children with a history of speech and language difficulties have associated literacy problems. However, school-age children whose speech difficulties persist beyond 5 years of age are most at risk for associated difficulties in reading, spelling and sometimes maths. Let us first consider the nature of persisting speech difficulties with reference to a simple psycholinguistic model of speech processing.
Estimates suggest 1 in ten people struggles with some form of dyslexia, which also affects reading ability. Dyslexic children may be able to spell a word one day and not the next and can find high frequency service words, such as prepositions, articles and conjunctions, particularly difficult to learn.
It may affect both the amount a student writes and the complexity of their written work. Poor spellers sometimes avoid using words that are part of their spoken vocabulary out of a fear of making spelling mistakes.
They can be reluctant to participate in group activities, especially those which involve writing on the board, and are less likely to take notes during lessons. The tragedy is that spelling is a somewhat superficial element of writing and with the right coping strategies and classroom accommodations, spelling challenges can often be overcome.
Note that if an underlying language difficulty is not addressed, spelling problems can follow a person into adulthood and affect higher education opportunities and even career choice and advancement.
Learn more about helping adults with poor spelling. Which cognitive processes are involved? Letter formation Before a child can master spelling he or she needs to learn the letters of the alphabet.
Letter formation requires extensive cognitive resources and coordination of fine-motor skills before the process becomes automatized. Some individuals continue to struggle with letter formation, particularly those with dysgraphia, dyspraxia, and visual processing disorders. Learn more in this post on handwriting difficulties.
Encoding a word Letters are arbitrary symbols that represent the sounds of a language.
Next, he or she needs to know the letters that map to those sounds and correctly translate them into written langauge. Children who struggle with dyslexia often have trouble with both processes. This is also the case for homophones, words which sound the same but are written in a different way, such as there and their.
The more a word is encountered in reading, the easier it is to remember its spelling. Automatization of writing The more a dyslexic student writes a word by hand, the more its spelling becomes automatic.
In fact many individuals with specific learning difficulties find it easier to spell when touch-typing than using a pen or pencil. The ability to type can also lead to improvements in written spelling. Dyslexia Dyslexia is a language based learning difference commonly associated with spelling difficulties and reading problems.
However, it can also affect memory and processing skills. There are different kinds of dyslexia but the most common type makes it hard for people to split language into its component sounds.
And while not being able to spell can be helped through spell-check and proofreading, reading difficulties are far more serious as they can cause kids to quickly fall behind at school.People with dysgraphia often have unusual difficulty with handwriting and spelling which in turn can cause writing fatigue.
They may lack basic grammar and spelling skills (for example, having difficulties with the letters p, q, b, and d), and often will write the wrong word when trying to . Children who have speech difficulties also may have difficulty with reading and spelling. Overall life skills: Dyspraxia can make it hard to master everyday tasks needed for independence.
In elementary school, kids still may need help buttoning a shirt or brushing their teeth.
Adult Symptoms of Dyspraxia. skills. Difficulty with typing, handwriting and drawing. May have a poor pen grip, press too hard when writing and have difficulty when writing along a line; Inadequate grasp.
Difficulty using tools and domestic implements, locks and keys reading and spelling and writing reports at work; Accuracy problems. Understanding your child’s trouble with writing is the first step to getting her the help she needs.
The more you know, the better able you’ll be to find strategies to build her writing . In dyspraxia, the fine motor skills needed to hold a pen or pencil can make writing by hand physically painful.
There are different kinds of dysgraphia but sometimes just writing in a straight line or staying within margins is a challenge. Reading and spelling Children with dyspraxia may have difficulties with reading and spelling. Limited concentration and poor listening skills, and literal use of language may have an effect on reading and spelling .