By assessing the work of others, you develop skills as a critical reader and.
What you should know The title and abstract are the most important parts of a pa- per. Electronic search databases use words in the title and abstract to yield search results.
In PubMed, the similarity be- tween documents is measured by the words they have in common, and terms in the title are given more weight. Some allow only sin- gle titles, whereas others allow subtitles, possibly with a colon.
Informative titles are those that present the out- come of the study e. Journals may require a short running title to be used at the top or bottom of each page, facilitating reader navigation through the journal.
Journals usually require a structured abstract with head- ings such as background, methods, results, and discussion. An abstract should be a stand- alone one, without any reference to the main text or the literature.
Most journals have a strict word limit for the ab- stract typically e words. While an abstract must be pleasant to read on its own, the narrative tone and style must be more telegraphic than that of the main text. What you should do Take time to write the title and abstract. Enjoy their unique- ness.
Take a quiet moment tore-read your paper and write down the keywords of the different sections. Determine if you need an informative or descriptive title. Use the keywords and active verbs to formulate several potential titles e.
Although running titles may often contain abbrevi- ations, avoid them in the title and abstract. Determine what fac- tor makes your paper unique and try to stress that in the title. Use the keywords of each section of the paper to construct the abstract. Always state the objective of your study at the beginning.
Limit your statements on each section to two or three sentences.
Try to use short phrases, simple language, and common word combinations, and avoid the passive voice as much as possible. Describe the important concepts using language fully consistent with the main text. Sentences may require a slightly different syntax if there are no head- ings because the journal requires an unstructured abstract.
The results section is the most important part of the ab- stract. Start by clearly and honestly stating the answer to the research question, including the primary outcome, and be self-critical when pondering how many secondary out- comes to include. If you report percentages, provide details of sample size.
Once the abstract is completed, it helps to ask yourself four questions, each relating to one section: Have three draft titles and the abstract ready before sending the paper to co- authors for comments.
Critically revise them every time the main text undergoes revisions. Cals and Daniel Kotz E-mail address: What is known and why is this study needed?
What did you do? What does it mean?Read "Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: title and abstract, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
PDF | On Feb 19, , Jochen W.L. Cals and others published Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: Title and abstract For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary.
Introducing a new series on effective writing and publishing of scientific papers. Kotz D, Cals JW, Tugwell P, Knottnerus JA.
Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: title and abstract. Cals JW, Kotz D. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part XI: submitting a paper. Kotz D, Cals JW. WRITING TIPS SERIES Effectivewriting and publishing scientiﬁc papers, part II: title and abstract 1.
What you should know. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: title and abstract.
Cals JW, Kotz D. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Humans; Periodicals as Topic; Publishing* Research Report/standards;. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers--part I: How to get started. doi: /vetconnexx.compi [doi]. 2. Cals JW, Kotz D. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: Title and abstract.
J Clin Epidemiol Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part XI: Submitting a paper. J Clin.