American Imperialism America had definitely played its role in its imperialism. First of all imperialism is the control from one country doing to another. America has controlled a lot of countries in its time.
During the last half of the nineteenth century, the Western imperialist powers of England, France, and Germany established the model for acquisition of colonies in Asia and for the partition of China into spheres of influence.
Near the end of the century, about the same time Japan began to capture colonial territory, the United States and Russia also initiated their imperialistic expansion in Asia.
Section 1 of this essay reviews the key points of the four theories of imperialism. The final section provides conclusions. Theories of Imperialism Imperialism can be defined as direct or indirect domination of an industrialized country over a colonial territory or another country.
These three Essay on imperialism in japan and the theory of nationalism have been subjected to various criticisms, but proponents still exist for each one.
Hobson identified the taproot of imperialism to be surplus capital in the home country in search of profitable investments in foreign markets. The profits earned by the small number of rich capitalists in the home market resulted in chronic oversaving, since they had a lower marginal propensity to consume than poor workers with wages based upon the cost of living rather than the efficiency of their labor Although imperialism does not make sense as a business policy for a nation as a whole due to its enormous military and administrative expense, "strong organized industrial and financial interests" that stand to gain from imperialism find ways to put this expense on the general public 46, Hobson argued that if purchasing power were reapportioned from the rich to the poor, then the home market would provide full employment of capital and labor with no overproduction, and there would be no need for the imperialistic fight for foreign markets Lenin 14, 88 expressed the Marxist view of imperialism as the "monopoly stage of capitalism," the highest and final stage of capitalism prior to the proletarian social revolution.
Essential features of imperialism include the concentration of production and capital into monopolies large-scale firmsthe merging of bank and industrial capital, the export of capital, the apportionment of the world among the large-scale firms, and the division of territories of the world among the great capitalist powers Lenin also emphasized that the need for raw materials drove capitalists to acquire colonies Like Hobson, Lenin argues that surplus capital will be exported abroad for the purpose of increasing profits Joseph Schumpeter 6 considered imperialism to be "the objectless disposition on the part of the state to unlimited forcible expansion.
The bellicosity of an autocratic state derives from "the necessities of its social structure, from the inherited dispositions of its ruling class, rather than from the immediate advantages to be derived from the conquest" As a country becomes more capitalistic, the energy for war decreases as the "competitive system absorbs the full energies of most of the people at all economic levels" Schumpeter viewed imperialism as an atavism in the social structure of capitalist states, an element from prior history that affects emotional reactions Nationalism as a theory of imperialism goes under several other names, such as "power politics" Cohen; Mommsen74 and "mercantilism" Brown26; Gilpin The theory of nationalism emphasizes the essential role of the state in imperialistic behavior as a nation seeks to maximize its power, prestige, and wealth relative to other countries.
Nationalists consider economic relations between nations to be conflictual, a zero-sum game where the gain of one nation is the loss of another nation. This theory views capitalists as willing to invest wherever profits are expected to be greatest, either in the home country, overseas colonies, or other countries, so sometimes the interests of state leaders and business capitalists may coincide in plans for imperialist expansion.
However, according to nationalism, ultimately politics determines economic relations and organization. Nationalists stress national security and national sentiment in international political and economic dynamics Gilpin Japan Joins the Imperialist Club Japan forcefully acquired three major foreign territories between and Korea occupied a strategically important geographic position just to the west of the southern part of Japan.
Japan went to war with China over proposed administrative and financial reforms in Korea. Japan also received a large indemnity; acquired Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula in southern Manchuria; and obtained several other concessions from China.
Only six days after signing the treaty, Germany, Russia, and France forced Japan to surrender its claims on the Liaodong Peninsula, which became a bitter diplomatic defeat for Japan.
Inonly three years later, Russia pushed into Manchuria and obtained a leasehold from China for the same peninsula Japan had been forced to relinquish.
During the same year, the United States, which embarked on its overseas imperialistic expansion about the same time as Japan, annexed Hawaii and the Philippines. From tothe imperialist powers of France, Germany, Russia, and England divided up China into spheres of influence, which included special railway and mining concessions, leased territory, and promises from China that comparable privileges would not be granted to other countries in a specified area.
Between andJapan became a full-fledged member in the club of imperialist powers. InJapan showed its military prowess when 8, of its troops joined 9, soldiers from the Western powers to fight side by side to defeat the Boxer Rebellion in China. In andJapan and Russia went to war over their territorial and political disputes in Korea and southern Manchuria.
However, during this period Japan had no excess capital and had to borrow large amounts from Britain and the United States to finance its rapid industrial expansion and its wars with China and Russia.
Although imports from the colonies as a share of total trade with other countries increased from 1. Lenin considered the existence of large-scale firms with great economic power monopolists and the merging of bank and industrial capital to be key characteristics of imperialism.
In Japan between anda handful of huge privately-owned conglomerates called zaibatsu increased their economic power. Although some of the zaibatsu such as Mitsui and Sumitomo had histories of more than years, they strengthened their economic position as the government, starting in the early s, sold to them several industrial plants and mines that become very profitable.Imperialism in fact brought immense military and political conflicts between China and Japan, culminating in the latter's invasion of China immediately before World War Two.
Japan made up for its relatively tiny geography through a beefed up military, industrial development, and political and economic ambitions of pan-Asian control. Japan, being a superior power in military technology, brought many different countries, such as Britain, Russia and America to adventure to her lands.
We will write a custom essay sample on Consequences of Imperialism during the 19th Century specifically for you for only $ $/page. We will write a custom essay sample on. More Essay Examples on Japan Rubric. The Japanese militarism was a movement spurred by the ideology that was wide spread in the empire of Japan stating that dominance of the social and political life of the nation should be left to the militarism, and the strength of the nation should be equal to the strength of the military - The rise of Japanese militarism Essay introduction.
Japan had made a great impact of imperialism on many countries including Korea.
As a small, isolated country, Japan lacked many essential resources. To obtain these resources, Japan wanted to not only trade, but eventually conquer East Asia.
Eventually, Japan decided to take over Korea.
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Age of Imperialism: Japan & China Essay - The nineteenth century was a turbulent time of western imperialism and a major Asian power shift. European powers and the United States had a destabilizing effect on the region and the choices Japan and China made in response their imposing expansion was a major contributor to the trajectory of their.