Iraq, initially hosted by Lester Holt. In separate incidents, at least three different Western reporters were fired or disciplined due to their actions in covering the war. The purpose was to determine if insurgents responded to information on "casualty sensitivity.
Summing up his short but detailed report, he includes the following as propaganda strategies: Incompleteness Inaccuracy Driving the agenda Milking the story maximizing media coverage of a particular issue by the careful use of briefings, leaking pieces of a jigsaw to different outlets, allowing journalists to piece the story together and drive the story up the news agenda, etc.
Exploiting that we want to believe the best of ourselves Perception Management in particular by using PR firms Reinforcing existing attitudes Simple, repetitious and emotional phrases e. The military recognizes the values of media and information control very well. Information Operations The military often manipulates the mainstream media, by restricting or managing what information is presented and hence what the public are told.
For them it is paramount to control the media. This can involve all manner of activities, from organizing media sessions and daily press briefings, or through providing managed access to war zones, to even planting stories.
This has happened throughout the 20th century. Over time then, the way that the media covers conflicts degrades in quality, critique and objectiveness.
Information is the currency of victory an August U. However, as well as needing to deceive adversaries, in order to maintain public support, information to their own public must no doubt be managed as well.
That makes sense from a military perspective. Sometimes the public can be willing to sacrifice Media analysis of gulf war knowledge.
But that can also lead to unaccountability and when information that is presented has been managed such, propaganda is often the result. Beelman also describes how this Information Operations is used to manage information: For reporters covering this war [on terrorism], the challenge is not just in getting unfettered and uncensored access to U.
IO, as it is known, groups together information functions ranging from public affairs PA, the military spokespersons corps to military deception and psychological operations, or PSYOP. What this means is that people whose job traditionally has been to talk to the media and divulge truthfully what they are able to tell now work hand-in-glove with those whose job it is to support battlefield operations with information, not all of which may be truthful.
This, he points out, can be accomplished via several strategies: Overloading the Media This can be done by providing too much information! They would gorge the media with information, Beelman writes, quoting one as saying, When you make the media happy, the media will not look for the rest of the story.
Ideological Appeals A common way to do this is to appeal to patriotism and safeguarding the often unarticulated national interest Schechter describes, how Condaleezza Rice and other Bush administration officials persuaded the networks to kill bin Laden videos and other Al-Jazeera work during the initial months after the September 11 tragedy.
This is nothing new, however, as he points out; All administrations try to seduce and co-opt the media. Schechter describes the ramifications: It is this ideological conformity and world view that makes it relatively easy for a well-oiled and sophisticated IO propaganda machine to keep the U.
Some of those companies, such as NBC parent General Electric, have long been a core component of that nexus of shared interests that President Eisenhower called the military-industrial complex.
It is the spin that the military will put on it. A result of this is propaganda and spin becoming the official version. Withholding Information Of course, the military can often hide behind this one!
Looked in isolation from other issues, this seems like an understandable and acceptable military strategy. Yet, when combined with the other propaganda strategies, it is another way to withhold information. Co-Option And Collusion As Danny Schechter asks on this issue, why do we in the media go along with this approach time and again?
We are not stupid. We are not robots. Too many of us have DIED trying to get this story and other stories. Ask any journalists and they will tell you that no one tells them what to write or what to do.
Yet there is a homogenized flavor and Pentagon echo to much coverage of this war that shames our profession. Is it because reporters buy into the ideology of the mission? Because there are few visible war critics to provide dissenting takes?
Or is it because information management has been so effective as to disallow any other legitimate approach? An uncritical stance is part of the problem.
Disseminating misinformation often adds up to an inaccurate picture of where we are in this war. Stratfor, a global intelligence consultant comments on the war on terrorism saying that the media have become cheerleaders as Coverage of the has reversed the traditional role between the press and the military.News coverage of the Gulf War in U.S.
media was sufficiently laudatory to the war-makers in Washington that a former assistant secretary of state, FAIR’s powerful Email Network sends our media criticism and news analysis directly to your mailbox–an average of about one message per day.
There are also weekly alerts, usually sent on. The media’s performance in the Gulf War prompted extensive self-analysis by journalists—much of it focused, in self-congratulatory fashion, on whether the press is too independent, too aggressive, too willing to present both sides.
Typically, TV discussions on the subject pitted right-wing press-bashers on the attack against mainstream. Media coverage of the Gulf War was significant for many reasons including CNN's live reporting from a Baghdad hotel, alternative and international coverage, and the use of images.
U.S. television coverage and the CNN factor. The Persian Gulf War was a heavily televised war. New.
The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence* Barbara Allen Carleton College Paula O'Loughlin University of Minnesota Amy Jasperson. Gulf War The Gulf War was a heavily televised vetconnexx.com the first time people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off .
Media coverage of the Iraq War Jump to as many had believed CNN would reclaim the top spot, since it established itself with coverage from the Gulf War. An MoD-commissioned commercial analysis of the print output produced by embeds shows that .