What is the Final Year Project? A working title and a brief description of your intended Project should be submitted when requested so that an allocation can be made to the most appropriate tutor. After your first consultation with your tutor, you may need to refine or to redefine your chosen subject area to ensure that it is manageable and feasible for an undergraduate student. She or he may well know some of the specialist literature base that you intend to access and may be able to give you some advice and guidance along the way.
Growth in the number of accredited Waldorf schools from to  Rudolf Steiner The first school based upon Steiner's ideas was opened in in response to a request by Emil Moltthe owner and managing director of the Waldorf-Astoria Cigarette Company in StuttgartGermany, to serve the children of employees of the factory.
The affected schools were reopened after the Second World War  though those in Soviet-dominated areas were closed again a few years later by Communist regimes. Most recently, many schools have opened in Asia, especially in China. The children themselves are this book. We should not learn to teach out of any book other than the one lying open before us and consisting of the children themselves.
The early childhood curriculum therefore centers on experiential educationallowing children to learn by example, and opportunities for imaginative play. Waldorf educators believe that use of these conflicts with young children's developmental needs,  media users may be physically inactive, and media may be seen to contain inappropriate or undesirable content and to hamper the imagination.
In order that students can connect more deeply with the subject matter, academic instruction is presented through artistic work that includes story-telling, visual artsdrama, movement, vocal and instrumental music, and crafts.
A central role of this class teacher is to provide supportive role models both through personal example and through stories drawn from a variety of cultures,  educating by exercising creative, loving authority. Class teachers are normally expected to teach a group of children for several years,  a practice known as looping.
The traditional goal was for the teacher to remain with a class for the eight years of the "lower school" cycle, but in recent years the duration of these cycles has been increasingly treated flexibly.
Already in first grade, specialized teachers teach many of the subjects, including music, crafts, movement, and two foreign languages from complementary language families  in English-speaking countries often German and either Spanish or French ; these subjects remain central to the curriculum throughout the elementary school years.
While class teachers serve a valuable role as personal mentors, establishing "lasting relationships with pupils",  especially in the early years, Ullrich documented problems when the same class teacher continues into the middle school years.
Noting that there is a danger of any authority figure limiting students enthusiasm for inquiry and assertion of autonomyhe emphasized the need for teachers to encourage independent thought and explanatory discussion in these years, and cited approvingly a number of schools where the class teacher accompanies the class for six years, after which specialist teachers play a significantly greater role.
For example, "cholerics are risk takers, phlegmatics take things calmly, melancholics are sensitive or introverted, and sanguines take things lightly". Seating arrangements and class activities may be planned taking into account the temperaments of the students  but this is often not readily apparent to observers.
Secondary education is provided by specialist teachers for each subject. The education focuses much more strongly on academic subjects, though students normally continue to take courses in art, music, and crafts. The walls are often painted in subtle colors, often with a lazure technique, and include textured surfaces.
The emphasis is on characterization through qualitative description. Pupils' progress is primarily evaluated through portfolio work in academic blocks and discussion of pupils in teacher conferences. Standardized tests are rare, with the exception of examinations necessary for college entry taken during the secondary school years.
Curriculum of the Waldorf schools Though Waldorf schools are autonomous institutions not required to follow a prescribed curriculum beyond those required by local governments there are widely agreed upon guidelines for the Waldorf curriculum, supported by the schools' common principles.
This has been described as a spiral curriculum. Elementary students paint, draw, sculpt, knit, weave, and crochet. Fine art instruction includes form drawing, sketching, sculpting, perspective drawing and other techniques.
Music instruction begins with singing in early childhood and choral instruction remains an important component through the end of high school. Around age 9, diatonic recorders and orchestral instruments are introduced.
Foremost among these is eurythmya movement art usually accompanying spoken texts or music which includes elements of drama and dance and is designed to provide individuals and classes with a "sense of integration and harmony".
Science[ edit ] Geometric growth of the nautilus shell — student work Waldorf schools cultivate a phenomenological approach to science education, that is, using an exemplary methodology of inquiry-based learning aiming to "strengthen the interest and ability to observe".
The researchers found that Waldorf school students scored higher than both the public school students and the national average on the TIMSS test while scoring the same as the public school students on the logical reasoning tests.
In a statement the university said "the courses did not encompass sufficient subject theory and a large part of the subject theory that is included is not founded on any scientific base".
The dean, Stefan Nordlund, stated "the syllabus contains literature which conveys scientific inaccuracies that are worse than woolly; they are downright dangerous".
Education researchers John Siraj-Blatchford and David Whitebread praised the [DfE] for making this exemption, highlighting Waldorf education's emphasis on simplicity of resources and the way the education cultivates the imagination.
In one Silicon Valley school, "three-quarters of the students have parents with a strong high-tech connection". Religion classes, universally absent from American Waldorf schools,  are a mandatory offering in some German federal states, whereby in Waldorf schools each religious denomination provides its own teachers for the classes, and a non-denominational religion class is also offered.
In the United Kingdom, public Waldorf schools are not categorized as " Faith schools ". The college of teachers, who decide on pedagogical issues, normally on the basis of consensus. This group is usually open to full-time teachers who have been with the school for a prescribed period of time.
Each school is accordingly unique in its approach, as it may act solely on the basis of the decisions of the college of teachers to set policy or other actions pertaining to the school and its students.
These organizations certify the use of the registered names "Waldorf" and "Steiner school" and offer accreditations, often in conjunction with regional independent school associations. The Waldorf public school movement is currently expanding rapidly; while inthere were twelve Waldorf-inspired public schools in the United States,  by there were 53 such schools.
The first Waldorf-inspired high school was launched in with assistance from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Studies of standardized test scores suggest that students at Waldorf-inspired schools tend to score below their peers in the earliest grades and catch up  or surpass  their peers by middle school.Buy The Social Work Dissertation: Using Small-Scale Qualitative Methodology: Using Small-Scale Qualitative Methodology: A Practical Guide 1 by Malcolm Carey (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store/5.
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